Use of Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyping for Diagnosis of Acute Leukemia at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya


  • Kirtika Patel MOI UNIVERSITY
  • Teresa Lotodo
  • Festus Njuguna
  • Wilfred Emonyi
  • Simeon Mining
  • Nathan Buziba
  • Madeline Czader
  • Asirwa Chite
  • Terry Vik
  • Gertjan Kaspers
  • Marisa Westers
  • Valerie de Haas
  • Floor Abbink
  • Jodi Skiles
  • Nicholas Kigen


Leukemia, Cytomorphology, Flow cytometry, AML, B-ALL, T-ALL.


The main objective of the study was to compare morphological and flow cytometric diagnosis in patients previously diagnosed with leukemia. The retrospective study was carried out at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital and patient’s data for the period of July 2013 and June 2014 was used. After Institutional Research Ethics approval was granted. Consecutive sampling was done and information was extracted from patient’s files. Data for all who were previously diagnosed with leukemia through both morphology and immunophenotyping was recorded. The data was collected using a data collection form where socio-demographic data, morphological and flow cytometry results were recorded. The findings were based on 33 patients who underwent both flow cytometry and bone marrow morphology tests for diagnosis of leukemia between July 2013 and June 2014. The ages of the patients ranged from 3 to 76 years. The ratio of male to female was 1:1.1.

Using the Bone marrow morphology, 17 patients had AML and 15 had ALL, one case was inconclusive There were five categories for the flow cytometry. They comprised of B-ALL-6 cases, T-ALL-13 cases, AML-10 cases, Biphynotypic-1 case and inconclusive-1case. There was concordance between the morphological and flow cytometry on 25 out of the 33 cases. As a conclusion we can say that at MTRH, Flow cytometry had a role to play to confirm a definite and a probable diagnosis of patients with acute leukemia. 

Author Biography




[1] Sengar M, Rai AK, Saxena A, Singh A, Raina V, Seth T, et al. Acute leukemia: Diagnosis improved by flow cytometry in addition to morphology. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2009 Mar 1;5(1):55–65.
[2] McKenna RW. Multifaceted Approach to the Diagnosis and Classification of Acute Leukemias. Clin Chem. 2000 Aug 1;46(8):1252–9.
[3] Peters JM, Ansari MQ. Multiparameter flow cytometry in the diagnosis and management of acute leukemia. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 Jan;135(1):44–54.
[4] Belov L, Vega O de la, Remedios CG dos, Mulligan SP, Christopherson RI. Immunophenotyping of Leukemias Using a Cluster of Differentiation Antibody Microarray. Cancer Res. 2001 Jun 1;61(11):4483–9.
[5] Di Noto R, Mirabelli P, Del Vecchio L. Flow cytometry analysis of acute promyelocytic leukemia: the power of “surface hematology.”Leukemia. 2007;21(1):4–8.
[6] S G, C SS, S KG, S SR, R DS, Y B, et al. Haematologic and immunophenotypic profile of acute myeloid leukemia?: an experience of Tata Memorial Hospital. Indian J Cancer. 2003 Apr 1;40(2):71.
[7] Langebrake C, Creutzig U, Dworzak M, Hrusak O, Mejstrikova E, Griesinger F, et al. Residual Disease Monitoring in Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry: The MRD-AML-BFM Study Group. J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 1;24(22):3686–92.
[8] Supriyadi E, Widjajanto PH, Veerman AJ p, Purwanto I, Nency YM, Gunawan S, et al. Immunophenotypic patterns of childhood acute leukemias in Indonesia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev APJCP. 2011;12(12):3381–7.
[9] Vecchio LD, Brando B, Lanza F, Ortolani C, Pizzolo G, Semenzato G, et al. Recommended reporting format for flow cytometry diagnosis of acute leukemia. Haematologica. 2004 Jan 1;89(5):594–8.
[10] Shrestha S, Shrestha J, Pun C, Pathak T, Bastola S, Bhatta R. Immunophenotypic study of acute leukemia by flow cytometry at BPKMCH. J Pathol Nepal [Internet]. 2013 Mar 27 [cited 2014 May 29];3(5). Available from:
[11] Belurkar S, Mantravadi H, Manohar C, Kurien A. Correlation of morphologic and cytochemical diagnosis with flowcytometric analysis in acute leukemia. J Cancer Res Ther. 2013;9(1):71.




How to Cite

Patel, K., Lotodo, T., Njuguna, F., Emonyi, W., Mining, S., Buziba, N., Czader, M., Chite, A., Vik, T., Kaspers, G., Westers, M., de Haas, V., Abbink, F., Skiles, J., & Kigen, N. (2015). Use of Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyping for Diagnosis of Acute Leukemia at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital, Eldoret, Kenya. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 13(1), 72–80. Retrieved from