American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2023-11-06T02:23:57+00:00 Prof. Mohamad L. A. Anabtawi Open Journal Systems <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences</a> is <strong>multidisciplinary <strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papers, review articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science. (but not limited to):</strong> anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education, Economics, Medical Technology, Biology, Medicine, Management, History, Mineralogy, Civil Engineering, Marine Technology, Commerce, Chemical Engineering, Animal Sciences, Petroleum &amp; Gas, Energy Resources, Agriculture, Medical Sciences, Machine Learning, Machinery, computer Science, Chemistry, Neural Networks, Physics, Social Science, Geology, Transportation, Waste Management, Control Engineering, Applied Mathematics, Oceanography, Biomedical Materials, Construction, Metallurgy, Neural Computing, Industrial Arts, IT, Astronology, Fire &amp; Fire Prevention, Robotics Marine Sciences, Solid State Technology, Business Administration, Food &amp;Food Industry, Atmospheric Sciences, Artificial Intelligence, Textile Industry &amp; Fabrics, Education science, Physiology, Nano Science, Microbiology, Psychology, Statistics, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Genetics, Botany, Veterinary Sciences, Biotechnology, Biochemistry, Zoology, Oncology, Accounting, Entomology, Parasitology, Evolution, human behavior, Biophysics, Fisheries, Pharmacology, Geography, Cell Biology, Genomics, Plant Biology, Law, Religious Studies, Endocrinology, Dentistry, Infectious Diseases, Toxicology, Immunology, Teacher education, and Neuroscience. </p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This International journal usually will provide the Editor's decision based on the peer review results <strong>within 4 weeks (28 days)</strong> from the paper submission date.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The journal accepts scientific papers for publication after passing the journal's double peer review process. For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="">About the Journal</a> page. </p> <p> </p> </div> A Short Message Service (SMS) Based Inquiry System 2023-10-05T10:42:47+00:00 Domingo Ralph Jesse Beltran Sheryl Anne Gagajena Geneson Trisha Anne Real Christian John Bañez Centeno Criselle <p>The arduous tasks of the registrars cause them to overlook undergraduates that inquires in their office – may it be subject deficiencies or requirements. In this study, the researchers developed a software application that can automatically cater inquiries of a student’s status if they have any impending deficiency, and to be able to message students about the precise time of the document’s completion that they have requested. The evaluation result is calculated using Cronbach's Alpha, which displays a value of 0.9053, equivalent to excellent. The ? is determined with the use of the calculated mean of functional sustainability (4.03), reliability (3.88), performance efficiency (3.80), usability (4.03), and security (3.82). The result shows that the system is operational and possesses a quick response that highly benefits the students and the registrar’s office.</p> 2023-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Mathematical Modelling of a Composite Granular Filter of Effluent at Shirere Wastewater Treatment Plant in Kakamega County, Kenya 2023-11-06T02:23:57+00:00 Otenyo Makonjio Philip Masibayi Namusasi Edward K’Owino Owino Isaac Samuel Soita China <p>Insufficient technology for municipal wastewater treatment compromises the quality of effluent discharged into water bodies, elevating the risk of waterborne diseases (e.g., cholera, dysentery, typhoid). Previous research has associated the absence of clean water and sanitation with health issues such as skin problems, eye infections, and diarrhea among community members. Furthermore, studies indicate the proliferation of algae in the Shirere wastewater oxidation ponds, suggesting the presence of toxic cyanobacteria. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a mathematical model representing five critical parameters: COD, BOD, TSS, Phosphates, and Nitrates. Effluent from Shirere WWTP were collected for microbial quality analysis at MMUST and KACUWASCO laboratories. Data analysis involved, regression and correlation, and integration of wastewater mass balance equation using R-Programming and Fourth Order Runga Kutta (RK) method. The research employed purposeful sampling strategy, with a sample size of 8 of wastewater. The study followed an experimental design. Specifically, for the first season of March – May 2021 at 200mm filtration depth were carried out at effluent flow rate of 0.0032 and volume, 0.234 the model arrived at was . The model results showed minimal variation from the measured values.The first season measured COD as 0.236kg/m<sup>3</sup> and model gave 0.2174kg/m<sup>3</sup>. The model can be used in prediction of parameter concentrations at any given time. The findings of this research will inform wastewater management policies and contribute to the development of sustainable wastewater treatment technologies.</p> 2023-11-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Combatting Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria: A Novel Approaches for Assessing Efflux Pumps 2023-10-11T13:50:34+00:00 Arnaba Saha Chaity Dipa Roy Md. Mahmudul Hasan Maruf Ariful Haque <p>In order to defend themselves, bacteria contain efflux pumps that assist in evacuating harmful chemicals outside the cell. Antibiotic-active efflux is one of the main mechanisms of drug resistance in bacteria. Membrane transporters use a variety of unrelated compounds as substrates to mediate the efflux process. Because of this, the presence and activity of efflux pumps have a significant impact on the effectiveness of antibiotics, which contributes to bacteria developing drug resistance. Six samples were used in the investigation, and f; foures were found to be <em>E. coli</em>, while the other two were <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. These isolates demonstrated efflux pump-mediated multidrug resistance. Notably, these bacteria with the Integron integrase 1 gene, called resistant strains, were resistant to 25 different antibiotics. Including Aztreonam, Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Amoxyclav, Cefepime, Cefepime/Tazobactam, Ampicillin, and Cefotaxime, resistance was observed in both <em>E. coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae. </em>Given the complexity of drug efflux transporters, novel approaches are essential to combat multidrug resistance in bacteria effectively. A glucose-triggered rhodamine 6G (R6G) efflux assay from Sigma-Aldrich, USA, was used to test how well efflux pumps work.</p> 2023-11-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Efficiency of Pumice-Sand Granular Filter in Removing Effluent Wastes in Shirere Wastewater Treatment Plant in Kakamega County, Kenya 2023-10-05T14:12:26+00:00 Otenyo Makonjio Philip Masibayi Namusasi Edward K’Owino Owino Isaac China Simiyu Samuel <p>Release of effluent directly from Aerobic maturation ponds into natural water bodies without more filtration has presented to be un optimal. Consequently, people down streams are exposed to greater risk of contracting waterborne diseases such as cholera, dysentery and typhoid. Skin problems, eye infections, and diarrhoea have all been linked to a lack of clean water and sanitation among community members. Introduction of filtering technologies such as sand, biochar, coconuts, pumice and crushed stone aggregates have been inadequate to treat the municipal waste water quality. Even then, no effort has been made to apply such technologies in the removal of wastes discharged into River isiukhu from Shirere waste water oxidation ponds. As consequence, its waters have been shown to be increasingly getting covered by algae which indicate the presence of cyno-bacteria that is very toxic to human and animal health. Thus, the objective &nbsp;&nbsp;of this study was to determine the efficiency of the pumice-sand granular filter in removing wastes in Shirere wastewater treatment plant in Kakamega. The wastes were Nitrates, Phosphates, BOD, COD and TSS. This objective was assessed under varying filter depths, effluent flow rate into the filter and seasons. Effluent, drinking water from protected springs along river Isiukhu, were collected using pre sterilized water sampling containers for microbial quality analysis at MMUST and KACWASCO laboratories. Sampling strategy was purposeful while sample size was 8 for water, 28 for waste water. Research design was experimental and data analysis used, regression and correlation methods. The average reduction of COD in the mid-season of June to August was 42.2 ±4.66%, being the highest. Concomitantly, BOD removal by the filter in the season of June to August was19.6±7% and 15.6 ±9.5% for September to November. The average rate of TSS removal in June to August was 19.3±4.5% followed by 16.6±3.8% of September to November and 18±7% of March to May. The average rate of Nitrate removal in June to August was 41.8±7.6% followed by 30±22% for March to May and 25±8.6% for September to November.&nbsp; Phosphates had an average rate of removal in June to August as 31.9±6.7% followed by 20.6±4.8% for September to November and 20 ±10% for March to May. This shows a trend of high efficiency in dry season of June to august and march to May followed by September to November. &nbsp;The use of composite filters in wastewater treatment reduced the organic matter intake, resulting in oxygen levels that were within natural values. &nbsp;Findings of this study will influence waste water management policies and improve new technologies in waste water treatment for sustainable development. From the results, its therefore recommended that the composite filter technology should be applied to non-compliant sewerage treatment plants.</p> 2023-10-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Utilization of Augmented Reality Technology in Learning Media Introduction to the Names of the Android-Based Human Senses System 2023-10-18T12:55:05+00:00 Muhammad Nabil Kurniawan <p>The development of computer technology is currently very advanced. Computers are used in all areas of human life, one of which is Augmented Reality (AR) technology. AR has been widely used as a tool for interactive learning media. Learning media that uses AR technology can improve student understanding. The learning media for recognizing the names of the five sensory systems in humans applies the concept of AR which uses a markerless method which will display 3D objects without a marker being detected. The material on the human sensory system is very interesting to study because it relates to daily activities regarding how our bodies can sense objects around humans. AR technology is really needed to better understand the material of the human sensory system.</p> 2023-11-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences Earthquake Readiness Analysis of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Students Using Simulation Application 2023-10-08T00:36:27+00:00 Jyn Audrey Franchezka Bais Criselle Centeno Danielle Marie Morales Pauline Tricia Platigue Theodore Dillan Presente Nathalie Tagaca <p>Despite the Philippines being recognized as a major need for enhanced disaster education and evacuation planning in every community, the ongoing pandemic has made it more difficult for institutions to execute required evacuation drills. As a result of a lack of repetition and participant involvement during mandatory earthquake simulations, participants overlook which routes are designated for evacuation and do not establish a lasting understanding of necessary procedures. Technology and gaming aspects may be used to simulate disasters for educational purposes. The Earthquake Simulation Application, which is based on a model of the structures around the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, was tested on a group of university students to confirm that the system complies with the standards outlined in ISO 25010. The purpose of the Earthquake Simulation Application created in this study is to advise students of the appropriate actions to take during and after an earthquake. To prevent unfavorable results, there are features that inform users of what constitutes incorrect behavior. This earthquake application repeatedly simulates the events that occur during an earthquake to support the retention of correct evacuation routes. Most responders who got earthquake simulation application instructions were able to fail the procedure at least once, but few were able to complete it. It was established that the earthquake simulation program was exceptional in terms of both functional stability and usability, as well as performance.</p> 2023-10-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences