American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (<strong>ASRJETS</strong>)</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; 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For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> Global Society of Scientific Research and Researchers en-US American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2313-4410 <p>Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. &nbsp;The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to accept\reject the paper.B. sends the paper to a selected editorial board member(s). C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> MRI Image Segmentation System of Uterine Fibroids Based on AR-Unet Network <p>Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in female reproductive organs. The segmentation of uterine fibroids is crucial for accurate treatment. This paper proposes a new uterine fibroids MRI T2W image segmentation network AR-Unet (Attention Resnet101-Unet), which uses the deep neural network ResNet101 as the front end of feature extraction, extracts image semantic information, and combines U-net design ideas to build a network structure. The attention gate module is added before the upsampling and downsampling feature maps are spliced. We tested a total of 123 uterine fibroids MRI T2W images from 13 patients. The segmentation results were verified with expert-defined manual segmentation results. The average Dice coefficient, IOU value, sensitivity and specificity of all segmented images were 0.9044, 0.8443, 88.55% and 94.56%, the performance is better than ResNet101-Unet and Attention-Unet models, and finally the network is encapsulated into an auxiliary diagnostic system.</p> TANG Chun-ming LIU Dong YU Xiang Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-10 2020-07-10 71 1 1 10 Mathematical Model for Determining the Coffee Leaf Area <p>The present study aimed to establish a mathematical model to estimate, in a simple and precise way, the area of the coffee leaves. What has been observed, in other works, already carried out, are many methods and instruments with the purpose of facilitating the measurement of leaf area and most of them are destructive, laborious and costly methods. For this study, 160 leaves of different dimensions were used to test linear and non-linear mathematical models. The linear model, which uses a correction factor (ACF = 0.644 • LF • CF) presented results with high precision (R² = 0.9898), with variations of -1.28% for larger leaves and 0.32% for smaller leaves, validating the method. Therefore, this model can be safely used to estimate the area of Arabica Catuaí 144 Red coffee leaves or similar.</p> Reginaldo José Cavallaro Elizabeth Uber-Bucek José Roberto Delalibera Finzer Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 71 1 11 19 Validity and Reliability Analysis of the Cyberbullying Scale <p>This study aimed to test the construct validity and construct reliability on the cyberbullying scale, and to examine the forms and indicators reflecting the construct of cyberbullying. Cyberbullying was measured by a cyberbullying scale that referred to the forms of cyberbullying, namely harassment, denigration, flaming, impersonation, masquerading, pseudonym, outing and trickery, and cyberstalking. The populations in this study were 393 2<sup>nd </sup>grade students at X, Y, Z high schools in Yogyakarta. The sample in this study were 146 students from 6 classes consisting of 93 males and 53 females with an age range of 16-17 years. The sampling technique used cluster random sampling. The cyberbullying scale was adopted as the data collection method. The data of this study were analyzed using Structural Equational Model (SEM) through the SmartPLS 3.2.8 program. Based on the results of the analysis, the forms and indicators creating the construct of cyberbullying were declared as valid and reliable. The most dominant form reflecting cyberbullying was masquerading with a loading factor of 0.879. Meanwhile, the weakest form reflecting cyberbullying was outing and trickery, with a loading factor value of 0.638. This showed that all forms and indicators were able to reflect and form the construct of cyberbullying. Thus, the measurement model could be accepted because the theory that describes cyberbullying is in accordance with empirical data obtained through the subject.</p> Muniratul Husna Fatwa Tentama Purwadi Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 71 1 20 33 Formulation of Functional Yogurt by Cofermentation of Milk and Papaya Fruit <p>This study was carried out to determine the potential of adding Fresh skinned papaya pulp (FSP) into yoghurt for the improvement of the functional properties of yoghurt and the resulting effects of adding PPF on the physicochemical and sensory properties of the product during a 30 days’ storage period at 6°C. Yoghurt samples A (Control), B, C, D and E were respectively produced at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of milk incorporated with papaya fruit. Incorporation of PPF into the yogurt samples resulted in an increase in pH, proteins and carbohydrates and a reduction in titratable acidity as compared to the control. The microbial analysis showed no presence of coliform bacteria. The sensory evaluation result demonstrated significant differences in all the organoleptic attributes analyzed. Sample C with 10% incorporated papaya had the highest overall acceptability score.</p> Stéphane Hervé Mpopo Ngum Lesley Ngum Philomina Yemguai Fankam Sylvain Sado Kamdem Palmer Masumbe Netongo Wilfred Fon Mbacham Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 71 1 34 40 Microbiological Assessment of Drinking Water Quality in Omdurman City <p>A study was conducted to evaluate the drinking water of Omdurman city, by looking into the microbiological aspect. Ten samples were taken randomly from different parts of Omdurman city during three seasons (winter, summer and autumn) for two successive years. Results indicated that most of the samples were contaminated by bacteria, including <em>Coliform, Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Fecal streptococcus</em>. The contamination percentage was higher in the rainy season and summer, while in winter was the least.</p> Hanan B. Alkhiry Elnasri M. Mutwali Nagat A. Alrofaei Elsir A. Salih Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-18 2020-07-18 71 1 41 46 Software Interface for Calculation of Gear Parameters <p>Designing of helical involute gears involve several parameters to be considered. It includes the calculation of the gear parameters, the use of several commercial packages such as Autodesk drafting package, solid work package, Ansys package … etc. The commercial packages are usually work on standard gears. Their libraries store gears that can be used by inserting the standard parameters not the modified parameters. When dealing with modified gears the profile is digitized and fed as discrete points to the package. As the modifications involve profile modification, gear undercutting, tip relief, inserting of gear backlash which result in varying all gear parameters, so a need to computerize this process and present a file that is read by the majority of the commercial packages. This paper gives a software interface capable of calculating all the parameters of involute helical gears including their modifications and saves them in Formatted files that can be read directly by the other gear packages.</p> Omar Monir Koura Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-20 2020-07-20 71 1 47 55 Evaluation of Development in the Children of Seasonal Agricultural Workers <p>Children of seasonal agricultural workers, are a group of migrants in Turkey where agricultural production is intense, having a significant part of the year in unhealthy habitats in agricultural areas and having access to services [1,2]. In this group, many temporary or permanent health problems may arise due to the conditions of accommodation and malnutrition [3]. Our aim is to assess the growth and development of children of seasonal agricultural workers. The study is a cross-sectional field study in the agricultural regions of Eskişehir city and districts starting from 1 July 2017. In our study, children of 119 seasonal agricultural workers under the age of 18 were included. In the study, 11 different agricultural regions were visited and the height, weight, body mass index and head circumference of the children were measured and the percentile values were calculated. In the study group ; children of seasonal agricultural workers were 53 (44.5%) male and 66 (55.5%) female. Their ages ranged from 0 to 16 years with a mean of 7.37 ± 3.58 years. 29.4% of the children of seasonal agricultural workers had both height and weight measurements of 5P or less. Growth and development retardation is one of the important diseases among the children of seasonal agricultural workers.</p> Yasemin Saglan Ugur Bilge Ramazan Saglan Yunus Emre Sarı Dilek Oztas Hüseyin Balcıoglu Ilhami Unlüoglu Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 71 1 56 60 Stakeholders’ Perception on Critical Success Factors Influencing Electronic Procurement Adoption in Developing Counties: Experience from Tanzania <p>The general objective of this study was to examine the stakeholders’ perception on critical success factors influencing Tanzania National electronic Procurement System adoption in public sector. The specific research objectives of the study were to: evaluate the perceived influences of legal framework, performance expectancy, relative advantage and attitude&nbsp;&nbsp; towards Tanzania National Electronic Procurement System&nbsp;&nbsp; implementation. The study adopted positivism philosophy and cross-sectional survey research design. The study also used stratified sampling technique. Sample size was 157 respondents. A questionnaire with closed ended questions and documentary review were used for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling with the help of SmartPLS 3 software. Findings reveal that all critical success factors were perceived the same by stakeholders (procurement experts and suppliers) towards Tanzania National Electronic Procurement System adoption. The study concludes that there is no significant difference with regard to stakeholders’ perception on critical success factors influencing Tanzania National electronic Procurement System adoption. The study recommends paying attention to relative advantage, performance expectancy and legal framework to significantly change the mindset of all stakeholders in the country in supporting of Tanzania National Electronic Procurement System implementation.</p> Deus N. Shatta France A. Shayo John N. Layaa Alban D. Mchopa Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-27 2020-07-27 71 1 61 86 Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of CsMI3(M=Ge,Sn,Pb) Perovskite from First Principles <p>The all-inorganic lead halide perovskites has received wide attention in optoelectronic applications such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes due to its high photoabsorption, suitable bandgap and good stability. Based on the first principles, the electronic structure and optical properties of the structure are studied by substituting all the lead elements in CsPbI3 with Ge and Sn.We found that the structural stability of all the substituted materials was enhanced. The tolerance factors of CsGeI3 and CsSnI3 were 0.934 and 0.874, respectively. The most important point is to replace the toxic Pb element, which not only reduces environmental pollution but also can be more suitable for commercial production. By analyzing the imaginary part of the dielectric function and absorption coefficient, it is found that the blue shift occurs in all the materials which replace Pb element, and the absorption ability of sun light is stronger in the visible light range, which proves the foundation for lead free perovskite solar cells.</p> Haoxuan Liu Haiming Zhang Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-07-29 2020-07-29 71 1 87 98 Relationship of Field Capacity with Geotechnical Parameters in an Urban Solid Waste Landfill <p>One of the main environmental problems of landfills of urban solid waste is the release of leachate which can result in soil and water contamination. Leachate represents one of several risk factors for the environment, since it has high concentrations of polluting agents. The possibility of knowledge about the leachate generation is important for the evaluation of the efficiency of a treatment system, as well as the knowledge of the soil and waste field capacity is also essential to implement a control of the total moisture content in the landfill that influences biodegradation and methane production. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of an efficient method of obtaining the field capacity for the layer of grounded solid waste cover, relating them to several geotechnical parameters. The obtaining of the field capacity of the soil and the residues consisted of driving the sampling cylinder through a backhoe, statically driving the small Shelbys (10.4 to 11.8 cm in diameter by 20 cm in height) to obtain the samples. In the laboratory, the samples had their ends sawn to remove excess waste, where they were then placed in a large bucket with a gravel mat, approximately 15 cm, to facilitate the saturation of the sample by the hydrostatic process of vessels communicants, where, after reaching saturation, they were placed in free drainage conditions in order to reach field capacity. The tests indicated that the average field capacity for the soils was 35%; for new wastes values ​​varying from 43 to 56% and for old wastes values ​​of volumetric field capacity ranging from 30 to 44%. Thus, it was observed that many empirical models used in dimensioning leachate treatment plants do not take into account a variable that directly influences leachate production<em>.</em></p> Eduardo Antonio Maia Lins José Fernando Thomé Jucá Cecília Maria Mota Silva Lins Maria Odete Holanda Mariano Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 71 1 99 122 Soil-Cement Bricks as an Alternative for Glass Waste Disposal <p>Glass can be recycled an infinite number of times. However, the reverse logistics of bottles, flasks, packaging and others is not always economically feasible, and landfill disposal is widespread in Brazil. The reuse of glass waste is an alternative to recycling, hence the objective of this study was to evaluate the production conditions of soil-cement-glass bricks. The use of glass waste occurred in two ways, one with a cement substitute (glass powder) and another with a soil substitute (crushed glass), in the manufacturing of soil-cement bricks. The results indicated that the glass powder was ineffective in replacing cement. On the other hand, the incorporation of crushed glass significantly improved the mechanical resistance in the specimens. The soil-cement-glass bricks (mass composed of 45% soil, 45% ground glass and 10% cement) molded in conventional and alternative forms showed resistance to the compression established by standards at 14 and 7 days, respectively. This study demonstrated that bricks produced with crushed glass have advantages from the environmental and technical points of view, contributing to the sustainability of the industrial and civil construction sectors.</p> André Luiz Machado Roselene Maria Schneider Adriana Garcia do Amaral Rafael Soares Arruda Flávio Alessandro Crispim Karinna Pinheiro de Oliveira Jennifer de Souza Onetta Letícia Tamara Hoffmann Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 71 1 123 135 PDDM: A Database Design Method for Polyglot Persistence <p>Databases by Web 2.0 has revealed the limitations of the relational model related to scalability. This led to the emergence of NoSQL databases, with data storage models other than relational ones. These databases propose solutions to such limitations through horizontal scalability and partially compromise data consistency. The combination of multiple data models, called polyglot persistence, extends these solutions by providing resources for the implementation of complex systems that have components with distinct requirements that would not be possible by the use of only one data model in a satisfactory way. However, there are no consolidated methods for the NoSQL database design and neither methods for design systems that apply the polyglot persistence. This work proposes a database design method applied to systems that use polyglot persistence, combining different data models. This method can be applied to the relational model and aggregate-oriented NoSQL data models. The method defines a set of sub-steps based on the existing concepts of database design. The goal is to define a formal process to assist in defining the data models to be used and to transform the conceptual design into a logical design. The method application is demonstrated in some test cases, in order to show its results and applicability for later execution of the physical design of these databases.</p> Cristofer Zdepski Tarcizio Alexandre Bini Simone Nasser Matos Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-08-06 2020-08-06 71 1 136 152 Gastronomy and Industrialized Food in the Aymara Communities of the Pilcuyo District, El Collao Province - Ilave -Puno-Peru <p>The research addresses a topic of social interest that is gastronomy and industrialized foods in the Aymara context, which with its varied forms and styles, differs from other gastronomies. The aim of the research is to present the wisdom of preparing meals and consumption of the population they produce and extent of industrialized foods. For this, the qualitative method and the technique of ethnography have been used. As a result of exploration it is noticed that in the Andes the cuisine of each day is varied (breakfast, lunch and dinner), the preparation of meals of the peasant families are based on what is done by raising agrobiodiversity, on what nature offers such as: plants, wild animals and minerals. On the other hand, industrialized food that is easily obtained in the local market. The consumption is closely related to weather stations of the agricultural year, which are: "<em>jallupacha</em> or <em>ch’uxñapacha</em> " (rainy season) and " <em>awtipacha </em>" (dry season).</p> Vicente Alanoca Jorge Apaza Alfredo Calderon Cesario Ticona Yuselino Maquera Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-08-08 2020-08-08 71 1 153 163 Increasing Economic Development and Multiple Employment Opportunities Through Vocational Education in Bangladesh <p>Education is universally recognized for the growth and development of human resource which can take responsibility for social, economic and scientific development of the country. Students need to be educated in modern, professional-based and job oriented technical, technological and vocational programs, if they want to improve the quality of life. Higher education programmes that prepare students for careers in fashion have much to gain by keeping pace with the industry's changing needs. Fashion education is one of the rapid growing and prospering vocation education in Bangladesh as well as the world. The development of fashion education reflects the economic expansion of a developing country like Bangladesh. The capacity, hope and employment opportunities are huge as the fashion industry has development across many other fields. Fashion have diversified scope and significant opportunities for job market. Global forces have shaped the fashion industry into a complex and far-reaching phenomenon as well as increasing nation’s economy. Goal of this study is to investigate multiple employment opportunities as well as recognized potential professional success as a factor important to choose fashion education which is known as vocation education.</p> Afroza Akter Rita Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-08-14 2020-08-14 71 1 164 173 Students’ Lack of Interest in Learning G.C.E Advanced Level (A/L) General English: Factors and Remedies. A Survey Research Based on G.C.E Advanced Level Students of T/Mu/Al Hilal Central College, Mutur, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. <p>This study aimed to identify the factors which contribute to the lack of interest of the students of T/Mu/Al Hilal Central College, Mutur, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka in learning GCE (Advanced Level) General English subject and to the gaining of lower results in General English in A/Level examination. Most of the students show their lack of interest to learn General English. Instead, they give more prominence to other main subjects in A/Level studies. As a result, students obtain lower results in General English in A/Level examination. This study was a survey research and a quantitative research. In this study, 25 GCE A/ Level (Grade 13 – Arts stream) students of T/Mu/Al Hilal Central College, Mutur, Trincomalee were randomly selected as the sample. The data were collected using a questionnaire which consists of both open-ended and close-ended questions. This instrument was used to collect the opinions among the students regarding the factors which contribute to the lack of interest. According to the data analysis, the results show that several factors such as giving prominence only to the main subjects, lack of English background, use of traditional classrooms and teaching methodologies, use of advanced textbooks, lack of positive motivation and crowded classroom contributed to students’ lack of interest and to the production of lower results in A/Level examination. This problem can be overcome when forming a separate language unit with modern classroom and facilities. Teachers should be advised to use Communicative Language Teaching Method. The University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka should implement circular that students should obtain at least Single pass (35 marks) in General English in Advanced Level examination to be selected for state universities. It can motivate them to study and get fine result in General English.</p> Abdul Halik Abdul Farook Rifka Nusrath Gulam Mohamed Copyright (c) 2020 American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences (ASRJETS) 2020-08-14 2020-08-14 71 1 174 181