American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences <div style="float: left; width: 315; text-align: center; margin-left: 5px;"> <p style="text-align: justify;">The <a title="home page for American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/index">American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences</a>&nbsp;is <strong>multidisciplinary&nbsp;<strong>peer reviewed </strong>Journal </strong><strong>intended to publish original research papersreview articles, short communications and technical reports in all main branches of science (All scientific disciplines) such as Social Sciences , Natural Sciences , Formal Sciences, and Applied science.&nbsp;(but not limited to):</strong>&nbsp;anthropology, archaeology, communication, criminology, education, government, linguistics, international relations, political science, sociology, Earth science, Ecology, Oceanography, Meteorology, Life science, Human biology, Decision theory, Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Systems theory, Theoretical computer science, Applied physics, Computer science, all Fields of engineering, Accounting, , Education,&nbsp; 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For detailed information about the journal kindly check <a title="About the Journal" href="/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/about">About the Journal</a>&nbsp;page.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </div> American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences en-US American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2313-4410 <p>Authors who submit papers&nbsp;with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol start="1"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> <li class="show">By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.</li> <li class="show">It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; 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C. the Editor In Chief himself evaluates the paper.</li> <li class="show">Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author</li> <li class="show">Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.</li> <li class="show">If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.</li> <li class="show">The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.</li> </ol> A Bibliometric Analysis of the Literature on Utility and Security Tokens <p>With the advancement of technology and the advent of the internet, a great digital revolution began. Faced with this scenario of technological innovation, the economic sector is increasingly looking for the use of efficient tools, which provide improvements from a financial perspective. Currently, digital assets and the token economy are already part of the reality of this new digital age, the choice of the present work stems from the interest in analyzing and understanding the diversity of scientific productions that are consolidated in the journals, indexed in databases, for such analysis uses the bibliometric method, which makes it possible to analyze the intellectual production on the topic of interest in a more robust and temporal way, allowing the quantification of the impact and relevance of scientific productions. This study aims to implement bibliometric resources using the R Project software, searching for data in the Scopus and Web of Science databases, having as keywords Security Token and Utility Token. The bibliometric application showed significant results, making it possible to quantify important data, as the year of beginning of publications containing the theme, main authors, documents and most cited authors, words most frequently used in titles, collaboration by country, among other information that add scientific research in a positive and considerable way.</p> Daiane Rodrigues dos Santos Tuany Esthefany Barcellos de Carvalho Silva Marco Aurélio Sanfins Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-13 2021-08-13 81 1 1 22 Upgrading of an Extended Aeration System to Improve Wastewater Treatment <p>According to this study, an extended aeration system can be upgraded by adding surface turbine aerators to the tanks and building new primary sedimentation tanks. Moreover, the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD<sub>5</sub>), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS) were also observed to be 440, 682, and 212 mg/L after primary settling, respectively. These values represent the removal of about 35% of the organic load and about 68% of the suspended solids, which reduces the organic load and sediments entering the secondary treatment. Furthermore, effluent BOD<sub>5</sub>, COD, and TSS values were 30, 47, and 32 mg/L respectively, while those permitted values are 60 mg/L of BOD<sub>5</sub>, 80 mg/L of COD, and 50 mg/L of TSS reflecting the success of the upgrading work.</p> Mohamed Ayoub Ahmed El-Morsy Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 81 1 23 35 Aspects of Clean Energy Transition in the Island of Crete, Greece <p>Clean energy transition in islands is of paramount importance for climate change mitigation. Various aspects in de-carbonization of the island of Crete, Greece have been investigated in order to examine the difficulties in replacing fossil fuels with benign energy resources in energy generation and in transportation. De-carbonization in different socio-economic sectors in Crete has been studied in order to find out the feasibility of de-carbonizing them as well as the sustainable energy technologies that can be used for achieving that. The results indicated that the sectors of electricity generation and heat and cooling production can be de-carbonized rather easily in the short to medium term using the abundant renewable energies in Crete. Transportation inside the island can be de-carbonized in the medium to long-term replacing the old conventional vehicles with new electric vehicles. More difficult is the de-carbonization in the transportation to and from Crete, via aircrafts and ships, since the required technologies are not mature and reliable yet while the necessary fuels are not produced in large scale in a cost-efficient way. De-carbonization in this sector can be achieved only in long-term while various technological breakthroughs are required for that. It is concluded that the clean energy transition in Crete is technically and economically feasible in some sectors while in others could be achievable only in the long-term supported by new technological developments.&nbsp; The results could be useful to policy makers for the creation and realization of a clean energy transition plan in the island of Crete that is necessary for complying with the EU target for carbon neutrality in the continent by 2050.</p> John Vourdoubas Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-19 2021-08-19 81 1 36 50 Variation of the Oswestry Disability Index in Patients with Lumbar Vertebral Discopathy, Surgically Treated <p>The prospective study was performed to highlight the evolution of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), before and after surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. A group of 100 patients was used, hospitalized and treated surgically in the Neurosurgery Department of the Constanta County Hospital, between 01.08.2020-31.12.2021. The study took into account general patient data (age, sex, provenience), comorbidities (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, chronic treatment with antiplatelet agents before surgery) and the presence of aggravating factors of lumbar vertebral disc disease with indication surgery (presence of polydiscopathy, motor deficit, preoperative and postoperative disc recurrence). There was a significant improvement in the severity of the degree of disability of surgically treated patients, both at one month and at 3 months, postoperatively. The improvement of the degree of disability was different, given the presence of aggravating factors, preoperatively and also the occupational factor, which delayed the postoperative clinical evolution, both, by rapid reintegration into daily life with physical effort and by the production of recurrences of discal pathology.</p> Emre Sarikaya Radu-Stefan Comanici Alexandra Pop Iulian Catalin Bratu Diana Jimbu Ion Bordeianu Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-21 2021-08-21 81 1 51 63 Adaptation Conflicts of Heterogeneous Devices in Iot Smart-Home <p>A promising technology such as Internet-of-Things have been introduced into traditional homes, buildings and cities to become smart and offer a wide range of services to simplify and enhance people’s lifestyle, a complex rule structure with a large number of sensing and actuating devices increases the chances of creating rules with faulty behaviors. Detection of sophisticated conflicts in an IoT system is one example of such faulty systems. In this paper, a mechanism is presented to detect such sophisticated conflicts among multi-resident smart-home services. Formally a model considering the functional properties of devices to distinguish a specific new kind of conflicts among the other basic types. Service User Regularity (SUR) conflict detection algorithm is proposed to trace resident habitual usage and behaviour conflicts and regulate them within the rules of the smart-home IoT-system. The system achieved good result; it could detect a reasonable number of targeted type conflicts within a synthesized data set.</p> Motaz Osman Ahmed Associated professor Salah Elfaki Elrofai Elfaki Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-21 2021-08-21 81 1 64 78 Scaling Up Manufacturing of Edible Coatings for Food <p>One of the most important methods for prolonging the shelf life of fruits and vegetables is edible coatings. The manufacture of the edible coating was tested in the laboratory before being scaled up to the industrial scale which is a procedure for applying, which applies the same process to different output volumes. One of the most crucial processes in the manufacturing of edible coatings is mixing. The equipment needed to scale up the production of edible solutions for food coating was also assessed. The results of the measurements revealed that scaling up mixing is based upon constant power/volume, equal blend duration, and adjusting the impeller/tank (D/T) diameter ratio was possible. A four-blade impeller was utilized to homogenize 1% carrageenan solutions at 70°C. Also, mixing parameters (Power number, Blend number, and Pumping number) were determined at different D/T ratios. Cost-effective pipe diameter and optimum pipe diameter per unit length were also determined.</p> Sanaa M. Ali Manal A. Sorour Magdy A. Wassel M. I. Ayad Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-22 2021-08-22 81 1 79 91 Serological and Molecular Detection of Coxiella Burnetii in Clinical Samples from Veterinarians and Cattle Farm Workers from Gabrovo Region, Bulgaria <p>Coxiella burnetii, which causes Q fever, is a highly infectious agent that is widespread around the world.&nbsp; During the last decades, the number of cases reported in Bulgaria varied from year to year. The present study aimed to determine the frequency of&nbsp;<em>C</em>.&nbsp;<em>burnetii</em> infection using ELISA and conventional PCR among freelance veterinarians and cattle farm workers in Gabrovo province, Bulgaria. In the period April 2020 to June, 2021 a total of 154 blood samples of target group was tested in the National Reference Laboratory of Cell cultures, rickettsia and oncogenic viruses (NRL CCROV) at NCIPD - Sofia. Diagnosis of C. burnetii was performed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA (anti-Coxiella burnetii ph. II IgG/IgM) and by end-point PCR technique (to detect the sodB gene region of C. burnetii). By indirect ELISA assay of the tested 154 clinical samples, anti-C. burnetii positive ph. II IgM antibodies were registered in 37% of samples. A relatively high percentage are affected in the active age between 50-60 years old. Anti-C. burnetii positive ph. II IgG antibodies were proven at 50% of tested samples. A positive PCR signal for C. burnetii DNA was obtained at 37/154 (20% of samples) and follows the above reported trend of acute infection of active age patients. Around 10% of tested samples were positive for three C. burnetii laboratory markers. We conclude that Q fever is endemic in Bulgaria. More research is necessary in different Bulgarian regions to set the human risk groups, to diagnose acute and chronic Q fever and to determine the economic impact of Q fever in the cattle industry. In the NRL CCROV was developed diagnostic scheme including complex methods to improve early laboratory diagnosis of C. burnetii, allowing taking proper treatment of suspected with Q fever patients.</p> Petia Genova-Kalou Stefka Krumova Miroslav Parvanov Radostina Stefanova Radoslav Marinov Ivona Andonova George Dyankov Konstantin Simeonov Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-22 2021-08-22 81 1 92 99 Energy Poverty, Economic Growth, and Industrialization Nexus in South Asian Countries: Panel Data Analysis <p>Energy inflation is measured as a person's inability to obtain sufficient energy sources. It's a diverse and complicated issue. This study investigates how economic growth, industrialization, urbanization, and employment in South Asian countries are all linked to energy poverty. In the South Asian region, the relationship between these factors has not been thoroughly examined. This study uses the panel data collected from South Asia’s most energy-intensive countries from 1995 to 2000. Advanced econometric methodologies and panel estimations are applied to explore the dynamic relationship. The long-run co-integration study reveals that economic growth reduces but industrialization increases energy poverty in these countries. Furthermore, energy poverty has a negative association with employment but a positive association with urbanization. The findings offer a framework for energy policymakers to establish policies that will assist them to meet the Sustainable Development Goals' objectives (SDGs).</p> Abu Zar Md. Shafiullah Md. Matiar Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-24 2021-08-24 81 1 100 110 The Users’ Body and Their Digital Representation in Interactive Installation- a Mereological Perspective <p>This article examines the relationship between the users’ body and its digital representations in digital body interactive installations, a sub-category of digital interactive art. Due to the reflective capacity of the interfaces incorporated in these artworks, the researchers designate the connection between the body and its digital embodied image as identification, or self- identification, terms which are not contextualized and detailed, leading to theoretical misinterpretations. To approach the problem, we use an ontological branch of study- mereology, and we discuss the membership of the body within the interactive system and the connection between the users’ body and the digital embodied self: component-integral relationship, functional, mandatory, and configurational, separation, encapsulation, and exchange relationships. Afterwards, we use the composition as identity thesis to show that instead of identification or self-identification, we characterize the connection between the users’ body and the digital body as “partial, temporary and stationary exchange” based on active engagement, self- consciousness, and body awareness. The relevance and novelty of the article tackle two directions: first, the interdisciplinary combination of logical philosophy and digital art, and secondly, the lack of ontological explanations regarding the structural relations in digital interactive art.</p> Sonia Emilia Mihai Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-24 2021-08-24 81 1 111 119 Development a Framework for Assessment of Water Security in Egypt <p>Water Security is very urgent for sustainable development in Egypt. Growing population needs more food production, water for drinking, hygiene, and to respond to economic activities which rely on access to more water.The objective of this paper is to develop an operational and applicable framework for assessment of water security index for Egypt.&nbsp; The water security index for Egypt was calculated according to the methodology of the Asian Water Development Bank Outlook (AWDO) using 2020 data and it was found that the water security situation is below average and huge efforts are needed to enhance this indicator in order to meet the current water challenges. After applying AWDO methodology for assessment of water security and its five indicators, it was found that some of them are misleading and some are not applicable to Egypt. In this paper, a modification for the indicators will be proposed to be more relevant to Egypt and to be more practical. The modified framework and its new indicators have represented the situation in Egypt with the challenges of an arid and extremely variable climate. The modified water security index evaluation methodology is also used in light of the Egyptian local conditions in predicting the indicator Water security for 2030 based on the assumed expectations of three water shortage scenarios. These future scenarios helped draw a road map for the necessary measures needed to secure the water situation and thus economic growth.</p> Rabab Gaber M. Nour El-Din Ghada Samy Ahmed Balah Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-08-29 2021-08-29 81 1 120 135 Mini Review: Q Fever (Coxiellosis): Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Current Laboratory Diagnosis <p>Q fever is zooantroponozis with global distribution caused by the strictly intracellular bacterium <em>Coxiella burnetii</em>. Causative agent of Q fever is an obligate intracellular parasite, classified in the genus <em>Coxiella</em>, family <em>Coxiellaceae</em>, class <em>Gammaproteobacteria</em>. The importance of the disease was assessed both in terms of human health and the serious economic damage they cause on livestock. Clinical manifestation of Q fever in humans is characterized by a wide variety - from asymptomatic infection to a chronic disease that can be fatal. Several basic methods have been developed to detection of <em>C. burnetii</em>. PCR and <em>C. burnetii</em> genomic sequences in whole blood are a sensitive and safe method of detection, with &gt;90% sensitivity. A four-fold or greater rise of (CF) antibody (phase 2) between the paired sera is also diagnostic approach. Sensitivity of a four-fold rise in titre has been estimated as 73% ÷78% and specificity has been estimated as 90%, respectively. EIA is method with highly sensitive and specific. EIA detect IgM and then IgG antibodies which develop to phase II antigens in 10 to 14 days from symptom onset. IFA tests are of particular value for confirmation of acute infection and for diagnosis of chronic infection with high sensitivity. The technique detected IgG, IgM and IgA immunoglobulin classes. Suitable specimens for C<em>. </em><em>burnetii</em> detection are blood samples. Although scientific interest in Q fever has always existed, a number of facts concerning the unforeseen nature of the epidemic, various clinical manifestations both in humans and in animals, the opportunities for chronic and other features of infection remain unclear. For this reason, timely and highly sensitive laboratory diagnosis is crucial for the outcome of the disease and subsequent treatment and monitoring.</p> Petia Genova-Kalou Stefka Krumova Miroslav Parvanov Radostina Stefanova Radoslav Marinov Ivona Andonova George Dyankov Konstantin Simeonov Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 81 1 136 143 Sandy Soils Improvement in Brazil <p>Designing geotechnical projects requires greater attention due to the importance of sustaining the building and transmission of loads to the ground. In this way, geotechnologies have been developed toward guaranteeing security and lowering cost for a building, as some methods of soil improvement to make shallow foundations feasible. The objective of this work is to present selected methods of sandy soils improvement in Northeastern Brazil, verifying the most common compaction columns in the region. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the technical feasibility of a new method of compacting sandy soils: terra-probe without material introduction. As a result of applying this technique, the treated massif obtained an increase in resistance and, consequently, an increase in its load capacity, as well as reduced the foundations settlements significantly.</p> Maiara Pôrto Pedro Oliveira Joaquim Oliveira Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-01 2021-09-01 81 1 144 157 Baby Incubation in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki Using the Physical Properties of Iron-doped Copper Sulphide (CuS) and Lead Sulphide(PbS) Thin Films Made by SILAR Method <p>The influence of iron on lead sulphide(PbS)&nbsp; and Copper Sulphide (CuS) &nbsp;thin films deposited on glass substrates via successive ionic layer adsorption (SILAR) Technique using lead acetate, Pb(CH <sub>3</sub> COO) <sub>2</sub><strong>, </strong>Cupric Acetate Cu(CH <sub>3</sub> COO) <sub>2</sub><strong>, </strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;thioacetamide ( S <sub>2</sub> H <sub>5</sub> NS)<strong>, </strong>&nbsp;Iron (II) Chloride dehydrate(Fe Cl <sub>2</sub>. 2H <sub>2</sub> O), ethanol and ammonia by&nbsp; in alkaline medium annealed between&nbsp; 283K and 500K was investigated.&nbsp;&nbsp; The structural and morphological studies were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Analysis and&nbsp; scanning electron microscopy(SEM) respectively.&nbsp; The XRD showed&nbsp; films of cubic&nbsp; crystalline&nbsp;&nbsp; PbS thin films, cubic and face-centred crystalline&nbsp; PbSFe thin films, cubic CuS thin film, hexagonal Cu <sub>2</sub> S thin films and cubic and hexagonal crystalline natured CuSFe thin films with the preferential (111),(002)(004) (311) orientations. From the structural and morphological&nbsp; studies, the iron lead sulphide,&nbsp; and iron copper sulphide thin films can&nbsp; be good materials for baby&nbsp;&nbsp; incubation in neo-natal unit of hospitals and adapted in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki - Nigeria due to their new characteristics.</p> Victoria N. Udeajah Daniel U. Onah Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-04 2021-09-04 81 1 158 166 An Empirical Mode Decomposition Approach for Multiple Broken Rotor Bars Detection in Three-Phase Induction Motors at No-Load Condition <p>This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) approach for multiple broken rotor bars detection in squirrel cage induction motors running at no-load condition, using the resultant magnetic flux density measured by a Hall Effect sensor installed between two stator slots of the electrical machine. Usually, the traditional motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has produced many cases of false indications related to, among other reasons, incorrect speed estimation, operation at low load (low slip) and nonadjacent broken bars. This study has investigated the application of the EMD technique in the signal collected from the Hall sensor, in order to detect broken rotor bars for an induction motor running at very low slip and subjected to adjacent and nonadjacent broken bars. The present approach has been validated from some experiments carried out by a 7.5 kW induction motor fed by a sinusoidal power supply in the laboratory.</p> Cleber Gustavo Dias Luiz Carlos da Silva Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 81 1 167 176 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Infections in Hostel Residents of Lahore, Pakistan <p>To maintain our good health, properly functioning gastrointestinal (GIT) track is always considered essential. Though in current era, living standards are much improved now but still gut infections are frequently reported around the globe. Because in third world countries, like Pakistan even in big cities people don’t have dietary sources of good quality. That’s why; a survey of randomly selected 10 hostels was conducted to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections among them. The results showed that mostly sufferers fall in age group of 18-28years and among them, females are more than males. Important causative factors for transmission of enteric pathogens are intake of impure water (in 42% cases), unhygienic food (in 18% cases) and blend of these two (in 33% cases) with major symptoms of abdominal discomfort, acid reflux, nausea and vomiting. But still only 19% gastric patients of hostel take proper medication for cure and rest of other are left untreated either due to lack of awareness or financial constraints. So these issues should be seriously addressed by the authorities to control the frequency of GIT infections among hostilities of Lahore, Pakistan<em>.</em></p> Sonia Aslam Anam Javed Tauheed Fatima Hafiz Imran Hashmi Saba Khurshid Aiman Shahid Sadia Khalid Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 81 1 177 185 Influence of Socio-demographic Variables on Prevalence of Hypertension in Lahore Division, Pakistan <p>Hypertension is a growing public health issue at global level and it is considered as a potent factor for cardiovascular ailments. But various socio-demographic factors are root causes to provoke this physiological disorder. In current study, through cross sectional survey, performa based data of 100 persons was collected from cities Lahore division, Pakistan. The results showed that males are more suffering than females and fall in age range of 20-40yrs. Most frequently reported initial symptoms are fatigue, irregular heartbeat and difficulty in breathing. Whereas district wise comparison indicated higher prevalence level in Lahore and Kasur than Shiekhupura and Nankana Sahib.&nbsp;&nbsp; Similarly, ANOVA results highlighted that economic status matters the most, parallel to the extent of awareness among masses, that’s why; mediocre is suffering more than upper or lower class. Thus cost effective treatments based findings should be our future goal to control this growing disease.</p> Anam Javed Sufyan Saleem Muniza Saeed Hamid Raza Bilal Shahid Kinza Islam Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 81 1 186 191 Struggling with Intellectual Inertia: Reflection on Participation in Higher Education Fellow Programme <p>This paper analyses issues related to my professional journey of becoming a teacher. The key highlight of this paper is that teacher’s engagement in a dialogical self-regulated inquiry (individually and collaboratively) is essential and provides a unique ongoing mode of teacher development. The study was conducted over a period of six months during my participation in a certificate course on enhancing academic practices at the higher education level. The data and analysis include extracts from the portfolio developed during the course. The findings indicate that continuous examination of&nbsp;&nbsp; my teaching and learning experiences pushed me to re-establish and escalate my journey towards becoming an effective teacher.&nbsp; My analysis suggests that, to promote self-inquiry approach; relationship between work culture, teaching and professional development support needs to be strengthened in terms of its conduct, quality, purpose and use.</p> Razia Fakir Mohammad Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 81 1 192 202 Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Properties of Selected Medicinal Plants Against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C, Clinical Isolates in Lafia, Nigeria <p>The aim of the research was to investigate the antibacterial activities and the phytochemical properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Mango (<em>Mangifera indica)</em> and Neem (<em>Azadirachta indica</em>) leaves, on clinical isolates of <em>Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C</em>, in Lafia, Nigeria. The agar well diffusion technique was used and the analyses were done in triplicates. <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, showed inhibition zone of 29.4±0.1mm, at the highest aqueous extract concentration of 80 mg/ml, while <em>Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C,</em> exhibited inhibition zones of 14.4±0.2 mm, 21.2±0.4 mm and 13.4±0.1 mm respectively. At the highest ethanolic extract concentration of 80 mg/ml, <em>Salmonella typhi,</em> showed inhibition zone of 30.0±0.01mm, while <em>Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C,</em> exhibited inhibition zones of 18.0±0.03mm, 20.0±0.04mm and 21.0±0.04mm respectively. At aqueous lower extract concentration of 10mg/ml, <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, exhibited inhibition zone of 8.4±0.01mm, while <em>Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C</em>, showed inhibition zones of 9.5±0.01mm, 9.1±0.01mm and 6.2±0.01mm respectively as exhibited in the Neem leaf extract. Ethanolic extract at 10 mg/ml, <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, showed inhibition zone of 9.0±0.1mm, while <em>Salmonella paratyphi A, B and C</em>, exhibited inhibition zones of 9.0±0.01mm, 9.0±0.01mm and 9.0±0.01mm respectively of Neem leaf extract. The MIC and MBC, of aqueous and ethanolic extracts against organisms were 2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml, respectively. The qualitative phytochemical results showed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. Conclusively, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of studied medicinal plant exhibited bactericidal activities against all tested organisms, and this supports the claim by traditional medical practitioners and vendors of the use of the plants for the cure of typhoid fever. Further studies are recommended on the toxicity and safe dosage regimen of the plants since the infusion of the plant is taken orally by people for the cure of typhoid fever.</p> Stanislaus Onyeberechiya Osuagwu Ichor Tersagha Smart Oluma H.O.A Onyemaechi Adibe Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 81 1 203 221 Palynological Study of Vida-1 Well, Central Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria <p>Palynological examination of forty (40) microscopic slides prepared from direct specimen of Agbada Formation core samples between (6,963ft – 9,866 ft), were carried out with a view to determining the age and paleoenviroment of deposition. Standard palynological procedure was followed and the slides yielded excellent to well preserved distribution of miospore assemblages. Diagnosis uncovered one hundred and twenty-three (123) miospores. &nbsp;Delineation of the well section produced four palynological zones based on stratigraphic distribution. <em>Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni</em>/P700 Zone characterized by the quantitative base occurrence of <em>Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni </em>and co-occurrence of <em>Belskipollis elegans, Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni, Pachydermites diederix, Gemmastephanocolporites sp., Echiperiporites estalae, </em>Verrutricolporites rotundiporus<em> and Stephanoporites echinatus. Magnastriatites howardii</em>/P600 Zone characterized by quantitative base occurrence of <em>Praedapollis flexibilis </em>and co-occurrence of<em> Magnastriatites howardii, Peregrinipollis nigericus, Praedapollis flexibilis Spirosyncolpites brunni, Verrucatosporites usmensis, </em><em>Retitricolporites irregularis. Verrucatosporites usmensis </em>/P500 Zone characterized by the co-occurrence of <em>Arecipites exilimuratus, Verrucatosporites usmensis and Gemmamonoporites sp. Verrucatosporites usmensis /</em>P400 Zone characterized by the quantitative base occurrence of<em> Verrucatosporites usmensis and co-occurrences of Psilatricolporites crassus, Pachydermites diederix</em> <em>and Monoporites annulatus. </em>Paleoecological grouping of the recovered palynomorphs assemblages revealed the presence of mangrove, freshwater swamp, coastal. riverine and savana vegetation types. However, the assemblages retrieved are dominated by terrestrially derived palynomorphs, such as spores (ferns and fungi) and pollens alongside depicting the brackish to freshwater colonial algae, marine indicator palynomorphs, including dinoflagellate cysts and foraminiferal linings, which were relatively low, indicating paralic environment with the shaly sediments being deposited in a marginally marine environment under a terrestrial influence. The palynofloral assemblage within this interval suggests deposition in environments fluctuating between marine and nearshore. The interval in the well section is dated Late Eocene - Middle Miocene.</p> Oluwakemi O. Efemena Geoffrey C. Soronnadi-ononiwu Franklin A. Lucas Copyright (c) 2021 American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 81 1 222 237