Retaining Force Augmentation of Retaining Walls


  • Krishpersad Manohar Senior Lecturer, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Department The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies
  • Kiran Tota-Maharaj Senior Lecturer in Water & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Science, Department of Engineering Science, University of Greenwich, Pembroke Building, Medway Campus, Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, U.K
  • Roshan Panchoo Managing Director, Ronblock International Company Limited, 11A Gosine Street, Fonrose Village, Poole, Rio Claro, Trinidad, West Indies


Retaining wall, Concrete block, Retaining force, Horizontal re-bar.


Concrete blocks retaining walls are commonly used for landscaping projects in which the retaining force strength of the structure is of paramount importance in preserving the integrity of the project and safety of humans and property.  The effect of augmenting the retaining force strength of concrete block retaining walls was investigated using interlocking and interlocking with a horizontal steel re-bar and compared with regular concrete block walls. The average maximum retaining force for regular, interlocking and interlocking with horizontal rebar walls was 16862 N, 24546 N, and 80855 N at wall deflection of 12.2 mm, 13.3 mm and 50.7 mm, respectively. The average maximum retaining force of the interlocking and the interlocking with horizontal re-bar walls increased by 45.6 % and 379.5 %, respectively, when compared to regular concrete block walls.  The inclusion of a horizontal steel re-bar in the interlocking design showed an increase of 229.4 % in the retaining force strength.  The wall sections without the horizontal re-bar failed abruptly beyond the maximum retaining force for both the regular and interlocking blocks. The interlocking concrete block design and the inclusion of a horizontal steel re-bar both significantly augmented the retaining force strength of concrete block retaining walls.  


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How to Cite

Manohar, K., Tota-Maharaj, K., & Panchoo, R. (2017). Retaining Force Augmentation of Retaining Walls. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 33(1), 269–278. Retrieved from