Effectiveness of Health Promotion Audiovisual Materials in Reducing Nicotine Dependence Among Young Adults


  • Arvi Joy P. Emen Khristienne Marie B. Elinzano, RNc, Aaron Kyle C. Enriquez, RNd, Denise Angelika O. Enriquez, RNe, Ma. Brisbane D. Escalada, RNf, and Mila Delia M. Llanes, PhD, RNg
  • Shylamae L. Edrada College of Nursing, University of Santo Tomas, España Boulevard, Manila, 1015, Philippines


Audiovisuals, Health Promotion Model, Nicotine Dependence, Young Adults


Nicotine dependence is an addiction to tobacco products caused by drug nicotine. The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced, killing more than 7 million people a year. In spite of all the efforts and interventions made by the government to curb smoking, there seemed to be a steady growth in the number of smokers through the years. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of health promotion audiovisual material in reducing nicotine dependence among young adults. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used to know the effectiveness of audiovisuals in decreasing nicotine dependency among young adults. The study population consisted of 50 young adult smokers, 25 in the experimental and 25 in the control group, ages 18-35 years old. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence Assessment Toolkit was used for both groups. Experiential videos were presented to the experimental group for 5-10 minutes. Independent T-test was used in comparing the pre-test scores of control and experimental group; however, to analyze the whole collated data, ANCOVA was utilized. There is a significant decrease between the post-test mean scores of the experimental group as compared to their pre-test scores (p=.014) and nicotine dependence of the experimental group significantly reduced after the intervention. Comparatively, there was no significant decrease within the pre-test and posttest scores (p=.104) of the experimental and the control group. The audiovisuals were presented to the experimental group that stated topics about cigarette smoking. There were significant differences between the pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and control groups which indicate that the audiovisuals utilizing the health promotion model were effective in reducing nicotine dependence among young adults. Long-term intervention and research about nicotine dependence may be implemented in future study. There were significant differences between the pretest and posttest scores of the experimental and control groups which indicate that the audiovisuals utilizing the health promotion model were effective in reducing nicotine dependence among young adults. Long-term intervention and research about nicotine dependence may be implemented in future study.


. M. Pentz, H. Shin, N. Riggs, J. Unger, K. Collison and C. Chou, "Parent, peer, and executive function relationships to early adolescent e-cigarette use: A substance use pathway?", Addictive Behaviors, vol. 42, pp. 73-78, 2015. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460314003724.

. M. Pesko and A. Robarts, "Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environment", Journal of Adolescent Health, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 70-76, 2019. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1054139X17300629.

. C. Pomerleau, S. Carton, M. Lutzke, K. Flessland and O. Pomerleau, "Reliability of the fagerstrom tolerance questionnaire and the fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence", Addictive Behaviors, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33-39, 1994. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0306460394900493.

. C. Products, "Rules, Regulations & Guidance - Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act - An Overview", 2018.

. P. Risica, A. Gavarkovs, D. Parker, E. Jennings and M. Phipps, "A tailored video intervention to reduce smoking and environmental tobacco exposure during and after pregnancy: Rationale, design and methods of Baby’s Breath", Contemporary Clinical Trials, vol. 52, pp. 1-9, 2017. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1551714416301112.

. B. Schmid et al., "Concurrent alcohol and tobacco use during early adolescence characterizes a group at risk", Alcohol and Alcoholism, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 219-225, 2007. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17526631/.

. A. Selya, L. Dierker, J. Rose, D. Hedeker and R. Mermelstein, "Risk factors for adolescent smoking: Parental smoking and the mediating role of nicotine dependence", Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 311-318, 2012. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376871612000464.

. W. Shadel, S. Shiffman, R. Niaura, M. Nichter and D. Abrams, "Current models of nicotine dependence: what is known and what is needed to advance understanding of tobacco etiology among youth", Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 59, pp. 9-22, 2016. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376871699001623.

. T. Slotkin, B. Bodwell, I. Ryde and F. Seidler, "Adolescent nicotine treatment changes the response of acetylcholine systems to subsequent nicotine administration in adulthood", Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 76, no. 1-2, pp. 152-165, 2008. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0361923007004224.

. M. Silveri and L. Spear, "Decreased sensitivity to the hypnotic effects of ethanol early in ontogeny", Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 670-676, 2017. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9622449/.

. N. Spillane, G. Smith and C. Kahler, "Impulsivity-like traits and smoking behavior in college students", Addictive Behaviors, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 700-705, 2010. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460310000870.

. N. Stanczyk, H. De Vries, M. Candel, J. Muris and C. Bolman, "Effectiveness of video- versus text-based computer-tailored smoking cessation interventions among smokers after one year", Preventive Medicine, vol. 82, pp. 42-50, 2016. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091743515003291.

. S. Woloshin, L. Schwartz and H. Welch, "The risk of death by age, sex, and smoking status in the United States: Putting health risks in context", Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 12, pp. 845-853, 2008. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18544745/.

. S. Ayaz and D. Açil, "Comparison of Peer Education and the Classic Training Method for School Aged Children Regarding Smoking and its Dangers", Journal of Pediatric Nursing, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. e3-e12, 2015. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0882596314003297.

. T. Baker et al., "Human neuronal acetylcholine receptor A5-A3-B4 haplotypes are associated with multiple nicotine dependence phenotypes", Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 785-796, 2016. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2699926/.

. C. Bares, D. Dick and K. Kendler, "Nicotine dependence, internalizing symptoms, mood variability and daily tobacco use among young adult smokers", Addictive Behaviors, vol. 83, pp. 87-94, 2017. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460317303404.

. N. Benowitz, "Nicotine addiction", The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 611-631, 1999. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10436290/.

. L. Dierker, E. Donny, S. Tiffany, S. Colby, N. Perrine and R. Clayton, "The association between cigarette smoking and DSM-IV nicotine dependence among first year college students", Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 86, no. 2-3, pp. 106-114, 2007. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376871606002092.

. L. Chassin, C. Presson, J. Rose and S. Sherman, "The natural history of cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood: demographic predictors of continuity and change", Health Psychology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 478-484, 2016. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8973929/.

. D. Clark and J. Cornelius, "Childhood psychopathology and adolescent cigarette smoking: A prospective survival analysis in children at high risk for substance use disorders", Addictive Behaviors, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 837-841, 2016. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0306460304000279.

. M. Curley, "Patient-nurse: optimizing patients’ outcomes", American Journal of Critical Care, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 64-72, 1998.

. [I. Elfeddali and H. De Vries, "An implicit pictorial methodology for measuring and retraining smokers’ reactivity to pictures of pros and cons of smoking: development protocol", Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, vol. 4, pp. 208-213, 2016. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5935902/.

. T. Heatherton, L. Kozlowski, R. Frecker and K. Fagerström, "The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire", British journal of addiction, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1119-1127, 1991. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1932883/.

. J. Johnston, "Moving Beyond the Ask: Improving Tobacco Cessation Intervention Delivery in Primary Care", Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects, p. 73, 2016.

. G. Kong, N. Singh and S. Krishnan-Sarin, "A Review of Culturally Targeted/Tailored Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Interventions for Minority Adolescents", Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1394-1406, 2012. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509015/.

. G. Laviola, W. Adriani, M. Terranova and G. Gerra, "Psychobiological risk factors for vulnerability to psychostimulants in human adolescents and animal models", Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 993-1010, 2016. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0149763499000329.

. R. Lamin, N. Othman and C. Othman, "Effect of Smoking Behavior on Nicotine Dependence Level among Adolescents", Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 153, pp. 189-198, 2014. Available: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042814054950.

. B. Lidestam, "Audiovisual training is better than auditory-only training for auditory-only speech-in-noise identification", The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 136, no. 2, p. 142, 2014. Available: 10.1121/1.4890200.

. A. Mamun, "Effectiveness of Audio-visual Aids in Language Teaching in Tertiary Level", MA thesis, BRAC University, Bangladesh, 2014.

. S. Niviethitha, C. Bhawarlal, H. Ramkumar, S. Dhakshanamoorthy and H. Shanmugam, "Effectiveness of an audio‐visual aid on the knowledge of school teachers regarding the emergency management of dental injuries", Dental Traumatology, 2018. Available: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29676046/.

. W. Organization, “The Role of Health Professionals in Tobacco Control”, Internet: https://www.who.int/tobacco/resources/publications/wntd/2005/bookletfinal_20april.pdf, 2005.




How to Cite

P. Emen, A. J. ., & Edrada, S. L. . (2020). Effectiveness of Health Promotion Audiovisual Materials in Reducing Nicotine Dependence Among Young Adults. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 73(1), 143–162. Retrieved from https://www.asrjetsjournal.org/index.php/American_Scientific_Journal/article/view/6157