Ecological Study of Vanellus indicus in District Narowal, Pakistan


  • Waqar Ahmad M.Phil Researcher, School of Zoology, Minhaj University Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Asif Mehmood Qureshi Professor, School of Zoology, Minhaj University Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Anam Javed Assistant Professor, School of Zoology, Minhaj University Lahore, Pakistan.


Vanellus indicus, endemic, Asian agricultural lands, breeding ecology, breeding season, biological control management


Red wattled lapwing is commonly found and endemic species of Asian agricultural lands. Its preferred habitat is airy lands, rural and even urban areas. The main aims of current investigatory effort were the observation of different parameters of breeding ecology of Vanellus indicus including breeding sites, incubation period, the clutch size, survival rate of chicks and possible reasons of their mortality which are localized in Narowal district. Red wattled lapwings forage on several types of insects, snails, seeds, and of invertebrates. Experimental observations highlight that the annual breeding season is of average 26-30 days of V. Indicus begins from the March and till the end of August. Moreover, the weight of their eggs falls between 22.0 to 28.0g. These findings about local species may serve for next experimental designs based of on V. indicus and further focus should be on those factors which may improve its breeding. Similarly, the estimation of feeding preferences of this species can directly help in low cost biological control management for crops.


. M. Kaur and K. S. Khera (2017). ʺ On the fundamentals of breeding biology and present threats to red wattled lapwing (Vanellus indicus) in agricultural landscape of Punjabʺ. Journal of entomology and zoology studies. 5(4), p.1501-1506.

. C. Kumar (2015). ʺFirst record of a regularly occupied nesting ground of Yellow-wattled Lapwing, Vanellus malabaricus (Boddaert) in agricultural environs of Punjab with notes on its biologyʺ. Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies. 3(1), p.129-134.

. G. Ariyasiri, A. Menike, and K. Ranawana (2009). ʺBreeding Ecology of Red-Wattled Lapwing (Vanellus Indicus) in Peradeniya University Premisesʺ. Peradeniya University Research Session PURSE -2009, Proceeding and Abstracts, Vol.14,3rd December, 2009, University of Peradeniya, p. 307.

. V. K. Sethi, D. Bhatt, A. Kumar and A. B. Naithani (2011). ʺThe hatching success of ground-and roof-nesting Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus in Haridwar. ʺ India Forktail. 27, p. 7-10.

. S. Khalil, T. Hussain, M. Anwar, M. Rafay, M. Abdullah, M. Khalid, and I. Ashraf (2019). ʺBreeding biology of red wattled lapwing (Vanellus indicus) from Southern Punjab, Pakistanʺ. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation. 11(2), p. 78-84.

. S. N. Dhandhukia and K. B. Patel (2015). ʺ Growth of various morphometric parameters of red-wattled lapwing (Vanellus Indicus) at Junagadh City, Gujaratʺ. Ind J Appl Res, 4, p. 131-132.




How to Cite

Ahmad, W. ., Qureshi, A. M. ., & Javed, A. . (2020). Ecological Study of Vanellus indicus in District Narowal, Pakistan. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 72(1), 113–117. Retrieved from