Road Upgrading in Terms of Geometric and Functional Characteristics


  • Chalepas Christos Freelancer Civil Engineer, M.Sc., Technical Chamber of Greece, Larissa, Greece
  • Papageorgiou Grigorios Assistant Professor, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece
  • Alamanis Nikolaos Assistant Professor, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece
  • Paschalis Evangelos Technological Civil Engineer, M.Sc., Ph.D. Candidate, Larissa, Greece
  • Papadimitriou Emanouil Technological Civil Engineer, Larissa, Greece


Management systems, upgrade model, load-bearing capacity, road maintenance


The road network plays a vital role in the economy of any country and maintaining the infrastructure at a level that serves the current traffic needs is a critical element. Road maintenance directly affects road users. If it is not adequate or if it is not done in time, the damage that will occur, in a national and provincial network, may be unmanageable and will affect the increased operating costs of vehicles, delays in travel, increase in the accident index and generally reduce the reliability of transport services. When corrective interventions can no longer be postponed or cancelled, extensive restoration and reconstruction work takes place, which costs much more than the simple / preventive maintenance that can be planned and carried out in a timely manner. The protection of the existing road network is necessary and its maintenance in good condition is a dominant issue for a Management Body and often precedes as a priority even a new investment in the field of road infrastructure. This paper focuses on road network management from the point of view of upgrading and maintenance. An optimization methodology is proposed depending on the condition of the road, so that the choice of operation is optimal for the current situation. In this way, unnecessary expenses, which are brought about by the usual maintenance works, are avoided, while the street cannot serve modern traffic needs efficiently.


. G. Papapgeorgiou. ‘‘Optimization of Upgrading and Maintenance of Road Network Through Evaluation of Functional and Geometrical Characteristics’’. Ph.D. thesis, University of Volos, Greece, 2010

. Working Group of the Special Committee for the Development of Trans-European Network Issues. ‘‘Structural Guides of Road constructions – Volume 2: Intersections’’. Ministry for the Environment, Physical Planning and Public Works, Greece, 2001 (RDSG-ΟΜΟΕ – Δ)

. AASHTO. ‘‘Highway Safety Manual, 1st edition’’. Washington DC, ISBN: 978-1-56051-477-0, 2001

. S. Cafiso., A. Di Graziano., G. Di Silvestro., G. La Cava., B. Persaud. “Development of comprehensive accident models for two lane rural highways using Exposure, Geometry, Consistency and Context Variables”. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 42, No 4, pp. 1072-1079, 2010

. TRB. “Decision methodology for maintenance and upgrading”. National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1980

. World Road Association. “The highway development and management system (HDM-4), Version 2.0”. World Road Association (PIARC), La Defense, France, 2005

. TRB. “Geometric design consistency on high-speed rural two lane roadways”. NCHRP 502, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2005

. C. J. Messer. “Methodology for evaluating geometric design consistency”. In Facility design and operational effects. Transportation Research Record 757, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 7–14, 1980

. K. Fitzpatrick., M. D. Wooldridge., O. J. Tsimhoni., M. Collins., P. Green., K. M. Bauer, K. D. Parma, R. D. Koppa, W. Harwood, I. Anderson, R. A. Krammes, and B. Poggioli. “Alternative design consistency rating methods for two-lane rural highways”. Report FHWA-RD-99-172, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), US Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 2000

. G. J. Alexander, H. Lunenfeld. “Driver expectancy in highway design and traffic operations”. Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), US Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1986

. FHWA. “Project development and design manual (PDDM)”. US Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1996

. Minnesota Department of Transportation. “Road design manual (RDM)”. Minneapolis, Minesota., 2007

. TAC. “Geometric Design Guides for Canadian Roads, Part 1”. Updates to the Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 1999

. Vermont Agency of Transportation. “Vermont State design standards”. Montpelier, Vermont, Washington, 1997

. H. Retzlaff, K. Sukhy, D. Podborochynski and J. Krawec. “Guidelines for upgrading low volume roads in Saskatchewan”. In Proceedings of the 2007 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Saskatoon, Sask., Transportation Association of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Oct. 2007

. T. L. Beatty, D. C. Jackson, D. A. Dawood, R. A. Ford, K. S. Moulthrop, G. D. Taylor, F. L. Danchetz, D. A. Blanck, J. M. Fay, D. S. Keough, L. M. Rodriguez, M. D Voth and Z. L. Webb. “Pavement Preservation Technology In France, South Africa And Australia”. International Technology Exchange Program, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FWHA), Publication No. FHWA-PL-03-001, HPIP/10-02(5M)EW, 2002

. R. A. Memon, A. Rizwan, G. B. Khaskheli, A. S. Qureshi. “Operating Speed Models for Two Lane Rural Roads in Pakistan”. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 35(5), 443 – 453, 2008

. C. Parkman. “Pavement management at Transit New Zealand: current challenges and progress with recent initiatives”, Proceedings from the 7th International Conference on Managing Pavements, 2008

. Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads. “Transport Infrastructure Asset Management Policy, Version 3”. Technical Publications, 2018

. A. Haylen. “Local Roads Maintenance in England”. Briefing paper CBP8383, House of Commons, 2019

. Transportation Research Board. “Highway Capacity Manual (HCM)”. Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-06681-6, 2000

. G. A. Giannopoulos. ‘‘Transportation Design and Traffic Technique, Volume 2, B Issue’’. Paratiritis, Thessaloniki, 1986

. R. Lamm, E. M. Choueiri. “Recommendations for Evaluating Horizontal Design Consistency Based on Investigations in the State of New York”. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 1122: 67-78, 1987

. R. Lamm, E. M. Choueiri and T. Mailaender. “Side Friction Demand Versus Side Friction Assumed for Curve Design on Two-Lane Rural Highways”. Transportation Research Record, 1303: 11-21, 1991

. A. Mouratidis, N. Eliou and G. Papageorgiou. ‘‘A Comprehensive Methodology to Define Threshold Values of Pavement Performance Indicators’’. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements organized by the International Society for Asphalt Pavements (ISAP), pp. 1508–1517, Nagoya, Japan., Aug. 2010

. G. Papageorgiou, N. Alamanis, I. Chouliaras and P. Kapsali. ‘‘Decision Making for Designing Infrastructure Projects: The case of the city of Larissa, Greece’’. Journal of Engineering and Architecture. American Research Institute for Policy Development. Volume 7, Issue 1, p.p. 115-125, 2019. DOI: 10.15640/jea.v7n1a13

. G. Papageorgiou, N. Alamanis and N. Xafoulis. ‘‘Methodology for Optimization of Road Works Schedule According to Local Climatic Data’’. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), Volume-8, Issue-4, p.p. 1470-1476, Nov. 2019




How to Cite

Christos, C. ., Grigorios, P. ., Nikolaos, A. ., Evangelos, P. ., & Emanouil, P. . (2020). Road Upgrading in Terms of Geometric and Functional Characteristics. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 74(2), 154–165. Retrieved from