Pyroligneous Acid Controls Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Increases Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L., Walp)] Productivity


  • Antônio Veimar Silva Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Paraíba, Brasil
  • Carla Michelle da Silva Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil
  • Manoel Cícero Oliveira Filho Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Paraíba, Brasil
  • Wagner Rogério Leocadio Soares Pessoa Universidade Federal do Piauí, Piauí, Brasil
  • Abraão Almeida Santos Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil
  • Arthur Vieira Ribeiro Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil
  • Marcelo Coutinho Picanço Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil


alternative control, biostimulants, cowpea aphid, organic production


The aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of cowpea crops [Vigna unguiculata (L., Walp.)]. Adults and nymphs feed on leaves, stems, flowers, and pods, leading to a reduction in plant productivity. Botanical insecticides can be an alternative for the control of A. craccivora, but studies under field conditions are necessary to evaluate these substances. We assessed the mortality of A. craccivora in cowpea crops for two seasons (dry and wet) using pyroligneous acid in three concentrations (2, 4 and 6 mL/L). Water was used as the control. Crop productivity was also evaluated. We performed the experiment using a completely randomized block design with four replications. Pyroligneous acid at 4 and 6 mL/L caused higher mortalities (p < 0.0001) and productivity was higher in plots sprayed with pyroligneous acid at these concentrations in both experimental seasons (p < 0.0001). In summary, pyroligneous acid controls A. craccivora and increases cowpea productivity.


. M.B. Isman. “Botanical Insecticides in the Twenty-First Century-Fulfilling Their Promise?”. Annual Reviews of Entomology, vol. 65, pp. 233–249, Jan. 2020.

. M.B. Isman. “Bridging the gap: Moving botanical insecticides from the laboratory to the farm”. Industrial Crops and Products, vol. 110, pp. 10–14, Dec. 2017.

. T.I. Ofuya. “Control of the cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), in cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp”. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, vol. 2, pp. 199–207, Dec. 1997.

. M. Obopile and B. Ositile. “Life table and population parameters of cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) on five cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) varieties”. Journal of Pest Science, vol. pp. 83:9–14, Jun. 2010.

. M. Machacha, M. Obopile, A.B.N. Tshegofatso, B. Tiroesele, C. Gwafila and M. Ramokapane. “Demographic parameters of cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora (Homoptera: Aphididae) on different Botswana cowpea landraces”. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, vol. 32, pp. 189–193, Dec. 2012.

. M. Obopile. “Economic threshold and injury levels for control of cowpea aphid, Aphis crassivora Linnaeus (Homoptera : Aphididae), on cowpea”. African Plant Protection, vol. 12, pp. 111–115, Dec. 2006.

. J. Mmojieje and A. Hornung. “The Potential Application of Pyroligneous Acid in the UK Agricultural”. Industry. Journal of Crop Improvement, vol. 29, pp. 228–246, Apr. 2015.

. M.C. Peel, B.L. Finlayson and T.A. McMahon. “Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification”. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 11, pp. 1633–1644, Oct. 2007.

. R.S.R. Almeida, M.M. Taccini, L.F. Moura, U.L. Ciribelli, J.O. Brito and E.M. Gloria. “Potential of Pyroligneous Extract of Eucalyptus Wood as a Preservative of Cosmetic and Sanitizing Products”. Waste and Biomass Valorization, vol. 10, pp. 1111–1118, Nov. 2019.

. R Core Team R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Version 3.5.1, 2018.

. Pavela R “Essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare Miller as a safe environmental insecticide against the aphid Myzus persicae Sulzer”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, pp. 10904–10910, Apr. 2018.

. A. Grewal, L. Abbey, L.R. “Gunupuru. Production, prospects and potential application of pyroligneous acid in agriculture”. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 135, pp. 152–159, Oct. 2018.




How to Cite

Silva, A. V. ., Silva, C. M. da ., Filho, M. C. O. ., Pessoa, W. R. L. S. ., Santos, A. A. ., Ribeiro, A. V. ., & Picanço, M. C. . (2021). Pyroligneous Acid Controls Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Increases Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L., Walp)] Productivity. American Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 79(1), 147–153. Retrieved from